Recent Changes

Wednesday, April 14

  1. page Nuclear China edited ... China has two rival state-owned nuclear power giants: The (CNNC)China National Nuclear Corpor…
    ...
    China has two rival state-owned nuclear power giants:
    The (CNNC)China National Nuclear Corporation, mainly in northeastern China.
    The China National Nuclear Corporation [CNNC] has responsibility for both civilian and military nuclear activities at all levels of the nuclear fuel cycle. CNNC is responsible for China's nuclear weapons and power production and waste disposal facilities, including a significant research and development capability. This corporation is responsible for uranium mining in China, primarily in Guangdong and Shanxi provinces, and also has a small production of gold found in association with uranium.
    The (CGNPC)
    China Guangdong
    ...
    southeastern China.
    China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Co., Ltd. was established in September 1994 with a registered capital of RMB 10.2 billion with nuclear power as its core business. With CGNPC as its core enterprise, China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group (CGNPG) comprises more than twenty wholly-owned or controlling subsidiaries. CGNPG currently owns Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) and Ling Ao Nuclear Power Station (LNPS) Phase I with nearly 4000 MWe of installed generating capacity.

    Global Impact
    As governments worldwide look at nuclear power as a possible answer to global warming, China has embarked on a nuclear-plant construction binge that eventually could exceed the one the United States undertook beginning in the 1960's.The last country to carry out such a rapid nuclear expansion was the United States in the 1970s, in a binge of reactor construction that ended with the Three Mile Island accident in Pennsylvania in 1979. It is critical that China maintain's nuclear safeguards in a national business culture where quality and safety sometimes take a back seat to cost-cutting, profits and outright corruption — as shown by scandals in the food, pharmaceutical and toy industries and by the shoddy construction of schools that collapsed in the Sichuan Province earthquake last year.
    (view changes)
    5:10 am
  2. page Nuclear China edited ... Nuclear Research {simulator.jpg} HistoryR_and_D Originally Chinese nuclear research and d…
    ...
    Nuclear Research
    {simulator.jpg}
    HistoryR_and_D
    Originally Chinese nuclear research and development was performed by the military. The first water-cooled graphite-moderated production reactor began operating in 1966 A water-cooled graphite-moderated production reactor for military plutonium started operating in 1966.

    Development (Paraphrased directly from world-nuclear.org)
    China Institute of Atomic Energy:
    (view changes)
    4:57 am
  3. page Nuclear China edited ... The idea behind a disposal site is simple: Stick the waste in a sealed container, place it dee…
    ...
    The idea behind a disposal site is simple: Stick the waste in a sealed container, place it deep underground, and leave it there until the radiation goes away. But in practice, finding appropriate sites has been difficult because of worries about earthquakes or ground water spreading the radiation.
    Chinas Nuclear Fuel Cycle
    ...
    from other countries.Domesticcountries. Domestic uranium mining
    ...
    agreements to aquire uranium resources internationally.China'sinternationally. China's two major
    ...
    has also initiatedbegan a number
    Nuclear Research
    {simulator.jpg}
    Originally Chinese nuclear research and development was performed by the military.These new reactors give a sixfold increase in nuclear capacity to be at least 60 GWe or possibly more by 2020, and then a further substantial increase to 160 GWe by 2030.
    HistoryR_and_D
    Originally Chinese nuclear research and development was performed by the military. The first water-cooled graphite-moderated production reactor began operating in 1966 A water-cooled graphite-moderated production reactor for military plutonium started operating in 1966.
    Development (Paraphrased directly from world-nuclear.org)
    China Institute of Atomic Energy:
    The China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIEA) undertakes fundamental research on nuclear science and technology, and is the leading body in relation to fast neutron reactors. Its 15 MWt heavy water research reactor started up in 1958 and was shut down at the end of 2007. An updated version of this was supplied to Algeria and has operated since 1992. CIEA is building the new 60 MWt China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), a light water tank type unit which expected to start up in 2009, and also the sodium-cooled CEFR (see below).
    ...
    Initially the HTR-10 has been coupled to a steam turbine power generation unit, but second phase plans are for it to operate at 950°C and drive a gas turbine, as well as enabling R&D in heat application technologies. This phase will involve an international partnership with Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), focused particularly on hydrogen production.
    Shidaowan HTR-PM
    ...
    Africa's PBMR.
    China
    China Huaneng Group,
    ...
    charge of R&D,research and development, and is
    Fast neutron reactors
    ...
    NIKIET and Kurchatov
    Kurchatov
    Institute. It
    ...
    criticality in 2009.11
    A
    2009.11A 600 MWe
    Cobalt-60 production
    China has started production of the medical and industrial radioisotope cobalt-60 using CNNC's Candu 6 power reactors at Qinshan. This will be China's first domestic production of the isotope. Candu reactors are also used to produce cobalt-60 at Wolsong in South Korea, Bruce in Canada and Embalse in Argentina. The core of a Candu 6 has stainless steel adjusters that help to shape neutron flux to optimise power output and ensure efficient burn up of uranium fuel. The normal cobalt in these can be replaced with cobalt-59, which absorbs neutrons to become Co-60. After about 15 months the stainless steel 'targets' with Co-59 are withdrawn for processing. The development is part of China’s 11th Five Year Plan, and should lead to the production of 220 petabecquerels (PBq) of Co-60 per year - enough to satisfy 80% of Chinese needs. The addition will boost global production by around 10%.
    ...
    The China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group, mainly in southeastern China.
    Global Impact
    ...
    Pennsylvania in 1979.China must maintain1979. It is critical that China maintain's nuclear safeguards
    Nuclear Security Summit
    Nuclear Future
    (view changes)
    4:56 am
  4. page Nuclear China edited ... The idea behind a disposal site is simple: Stick the waste in a sealed container, place it dee…
    ...
    The idea behind a disposal site is simple: Stick the waste in a sealed container, place it deep underground, and leave it there until the radiation goes away. But in practice, finding appropriate sites has been difficult because of worries about earthquakes or ground water spreading the radiation.
    Chinas Nuclear Fuel Cycle
    ...
    cycle, it still relies increasingly on imported
    ...
    from other countries.
    Domestic
    countries.Domestic uranium mining currently supplies aboutcovers bout one-half of
    ...
    nuclear fuel needs.needs in the present. Exploration and
    ...
    uranium resources internationally.
    China's
    internationally.China's two major
    ...
    meet future needs.
    China
    needs.China has stated
    Nuclear Research
    {simulator.jpg}
    Originally Chinese nuclear research and development was performed by the military.These new reactors give a sixfold increase in nuclear capacity to be at least 60 GWe or possibly more by 2020, and then a further substantial increase to 160 GWe by 2030.
    HistoryR_and_D
    ...
    operating in 1966, located at the Jiuquan Atomic Energy Complex some 100 km northwest of the city of Jiuquan in Gansu province, north-central China. The area is mainly desert and very remote. In the early 1980s it was decided to convert it to dual-use, and plutonium production evidently ceased in 1984. Reprocessing was on site. Another, larger, plutonium production reactor with associated facilities was in a steep valley at1966.
    Development
    China Institute of Atomic Energy:
    (view changes)
    4:29 am
  5. page Nuclear China edited ... Originally Chinese nuclear research and development was performed by the military. The first w…
    ...
    Originally Chinese nuclear research and development was performed by the military. The first water-cooled graphite-moderated production reactor began operating in 1966 A water-cooled graphite-moderated production reactor for military plutonium started operating in 1966, located at the Jiuquan Atomic Energy Complex some 100 km northwest of the city of Jiuquan in Gansu province, north-central China. The area is mainly desert and very remote. In the early 1980s it was decided to convert it to dual-use, and plutonium production evidently ceased in 1984. Reprocessing was on site. Another, larger, plutonium production reactor with associated facilities was in a steep valley at
    Development
    ...
    of Atomic EnergyEnergy:
    The China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIEA) undertakes fundamental research on nuclear science and technology, and is the leading body in relation to fast neutron reactors. Its 15 MWt heavy water research reactor started up in 1958 and was shut down at the end of 2007. An updated version of this was supplied to Algeria and has operated since 1992. CIEA is building the new 60 MWt China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), a light water tank type unit which expected to start up in 2009, and also the sodium-cooled CEFR (see below).
    HTR-10
    ...
    Shidaowan HTR-PM
    A key R&D project is the demonstration Shidaowan HTR-PM of 210 MWe (two reactor modules, each of 250 MWt) which is being built at Shidaowan in Shandong province, driving a single steam turbine at about 40% thermal efficiency. The size was reduced to 250 MWt from earlier 458 MWt modules in order to retain the same core configuration as the prototype HTR-10 and avoid moving to an annular design like South Africa's PBMR.
    ...
    expected in 2013.
    The
    2013.The HTR-PM will
    ...
    installed throughout China.
    In
    China.In March 2005,
    Fast neutron reactors
    China's R&D on fast neutron reactors started in 1964. A 65 MWt sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor - the Chinese Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) - is nearing completion at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) near Beijing, being built by Russia's OKBM Afrikantov in collaboration with OKB Gidropress, NIKIET and Kurchatov Institute. It is reported to have a 25 MWe turbine generator and was expected to achieve first criticality in 2009.11
    ...
    24,700 MW
    5,040 MW
    ...
    announced, China intendsis intending to spend
    ...
    by 2020. SomeCertain analysts say
    ...
    the world today.today!
    References
    "Energy policy of China." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 12 Apr. 2010. Web. 13 Apr. 2010
    (view changes)
    4:25 am
  6. page Nuclear China edited ... {Gu_(2).jpg} "Our irrational energy structure is causing serious pollution and greenhou…
    ...
    {Gu_(2).jpg}
    "Our irrational energy structure is causing serious pollution and greenhouse problems," said Gu Zhongmao, a professor at the China Institute of Atomic Energy, a government-affiliated research center. The situation provoked years of internal debate about nuclear power as an answer, he said, before the country's leaders finally came to a consensus.
    The Chinese government has emphasized a commitment to safety and is relying heavily on Western contractors such as Westinghouse to teach its engineers to build and operate plants.
    Pros:
    Nuclear power plants, unlike those that run on fossil fuels, release few greenhouse gases
    ...
    close to centrescenters of demand,
    Bringing so much nuclear power online over the next decade would reduce the country’s energy-related emissions of global warming gases by about 5 percent, compared with the emissions that would be produced by burning coal to generate the power.
    Disadvantages
    {li_Ganjie.jpg} The
    The
    issue of
    ...
    this year.
    Philippe Jamet, the director of the division of

    There are two major disadvantages or problems with
    nuclear installationpower. One being that it is a safety at theInternational Atomic Energy Agencyhazard in Vienna, said that China had welcomed foreign inspectors at its reactorssome situations and the others is the toxic waste and radioactive materials that “they show pretty good operations safety.”
    But he added
    it produces. The one thing that the international agency was concerned about whether China would have enough nuclear inspectors with adequate trainingdoes not want to handledo is put up about a dozen poorly designed plants that will culminate in the rapid expansion.
    “They don’t have very much staff, when you compare their staff with how many they will need,” Mr. Jamet said.
    The safety Issue Even
    Chernobyl disaster of 1986, which then spread radiation across Europe in the world's worst nuclear accident. However even if the if the issue of safety issue in China
    ...
    that has bedeviledplagued nuclear power
    ...
    radioactive waste.
    Where
    IN order to put the waste
    The challenge for
    remedy in hazardous situations the government and for nuclear companies as they increase construction is tomust keep an
    ...
    to cut corners.
    Yet
    corners,as they increase construction. Because environmental advocacy
    ...
    less than sanguineecstatic about the
    ...
    government has a bad rap for a poor
    ...
    drug purity.
    Another communist state, the Soviet Union, seized on nuclear power in the 1970s and '80s as an answer to its energy problems, putting up about a dozen poorly designed plants. That culminated in the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, which spread radiation across Europe in the world's worst nuclear accident.

    Cons:
    produceThe waste produced waste that can be
    China is placing many of its nuclear plants near large cities, potentially exposing tens of millions of people to radiation in the event of an accident.
    The idea behind a disposal site is simple: Stick the waste in a sealed container, place it deep underground, and leave it there until the radiation goes away. But in practice, finding appropriate sites has been difficult because of worries about earthquakes or ground water spreading the radiation.
    ...
    Nuclear Research
    {simulator.jpg}
    InitiallyOriginally Chinese nuclear
    ...
    development was carried outperformed by the militaryNuclear research in China has been China is not known to have had a serious accident in 15 years of large-scale electricity production. government scientists have begun boring holes deep into granite in the first steps toward building what could become the world's largest tomb for nuclear waste.Thesemilitary.These new reactors
    ...
    by 2030.
    \
    Research & developmentR_and_D
    Initial

    HistoryR_and_D
    Originally
    Chinese nuclear R&Dresearch and development was performed by the military. The first water-cooled graphite-moderated production reactor began operating in 1966 A water-cooled
    ...
    valley at Guangyuan in Sichuan province, about 1000 km south. It started up about 1975 and produced the major part of China's military plutonium through to 1991.
    Apart from military facilities, China has about 15 operational research reactors, including the 125 MW light water High-Flux Engineering Test Reactor (HFETR) run by the (Southwest) Leshan Nuclear Power Institute of China at Jiajiang, Sichuan province, since 1979. Early in 2007, this was converted to use low-enriched uranium, with the help of the US National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The HWRR-II 15 MW heavy water reactor, which was operating since 1958, was shut down at the end of 2007. Two - the 60 MW China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) and the 65 MW China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) - are listed as under construction. At least one of the five in Sichuan province was near the epicentre of the May 2008 earthquake.
    The NDRC is strongly supporting R&D on advanced fuel cycles, which will more effectively utilise uranium, and possible also use thorium. The main research organisations are INET at Tsinghua University, China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIEA), also near Beijng, and the Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC) at Chengdu, which is the main body focused on the PHWR technology and fuel cycles. INET has been looking at a wide range of fuel cycle options including thorium, especially for the Qinshan Phase III PHWR units. NPIC has been looking at use of reprocessed uranium in Qinshan's PHWR reactors. CIAE is mainly involved with fast reactor R&D. China's R&D on fast neutron reactors started in 1964.
    Early in 2008 CCNC subsidiary NPIC signed an agreement with Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) to undertake research on advanced fuel cycle technologies such as recycling recovered uranium from used PWR fuel and Generation IV nuclear energy systems. Initially this seems to mean DUPIC, the Direct Use of used PWR fuel In Candu reactors, the main work on which so far has been in South Korea. This blossomed into a strategic agreement among AECL and the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Company (TQNPC), China North Nuclear Fuel Corporation and NPIC in November 2008. The four partners will jointly develop technology for recycling used nuclear fuel from other Chinese reactors (PWRs) with up to 1.6% fissile content for use in the Qinshan Phase III Candu units, though phase one of the agreement was a joint feasibility study to examine the economic feasibility of the thorium proposal.
    In July 2009 a second phase agreement was signed among these four parties to jointly develop and demonstrate the use of thorium fuel and to study the commercial and technical feasibility of its full-scale use in Candu units such as at Qinshan. This was supported in December 2009 by an expert panel appointed by CNNC. The panel also noted the ability of Candu reactors to re-use uranium recycled from light water reactor fuel, and unanimously recommended that China consider building two new Candu units to take advantage of the design's unique capabilities in utilizing alternative fuels. The expert panel comprised representatives from China’s leading nuclear academic, government, industry and R&D organizations. In particular it confirmed that thorium use in the Enhanced Candu 6 reactor design is “technically practical and feasible”, and cited the design’s “enhanced safety and good economics” as reasons it could be deployed in China in the near term.
    In 2008, SNPTC and Tsinghua University set up the State Research Centre for Nuclear Power Technology, focused on large-scale advanced PWR technology and to accelerate China's independent development of third-generation nuclear power.
    A 200 MWt NHR-200 integral PWR design for heat and desalination has been developed by Tsinghua University's Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) near Beijing. It is developed from the 5 MW NHR-5 prototype which started up in 1989.

    Development
    China Institute of Atomic Energy
    ...
    Nuclear Power Control
    China has two rival state-owned nuclear power giants:
    ...
    in northeastern ChinaChina.
    The China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group, mainly in southeastern China.
    Global Impact
    ...
    States undertook during the technology's heydaybeginning in the 1960s.The1960's.The last country
    Nuclear Security Summit
    Nuclear Future
    (view changes)
    4:07 am

Tuesday, April 13

  1. page Nuclear China edited Nuclear Energy in Chinaby Ali howard Introduction ... 25,400 megawatts. Mainland Today, Chin…
    Nuclear Energy in Chinaby Ali howard
    Introduction
    ...
    25,400 megawatts. MainlandToday, China’s nuclear plants can produce about nine gigawatts of power when operating at full capacity, supplying about 2.7 percent of the country’s electricity.Mainland China's efforts
    China is quickly becoming self-sufficient in both it's reactor design and construction, as well as other aspects pertaining to the fuel cycle. Nuclear power plays an important role in coastal areas that are far away from the coalfields and where the economy is developing rapidly. Therefore China's many cities and expedient economic development make it the ideal
    Advantages
    {Gu_(2).jpg}
    "Our irrational energy structure is causing serious pollution and greenhouse problems," said Gu Zhongmao, a professor at the China Institute of Atomic Energy, a government-affiliated research center. The situation provoked years of internal debate about nuclear power as an answer, he said, before the country's leaders finally came to a consensus.
    The Chinese government has emphasized a commitment to safety and is relying heavily on Western contractors such as Westinghouse to teach its engineers to build and operate plants.
    Pros:
    Nuclear power plants, unlike those that run on fossil fuels, release few greenhouse gases
    Generally, nuclear plants can be built close to centres of demand, whereas suitable wind and hydro sites are remote from demand.
    Bringing so much nuclear power online over the next decade would reduce the country’s energy-related emissions of global warming gases by about 5 percent, compared with the emissions that would be produced by burning coal to generate the power.
    Disadvantages
    The{li_Ganjie.jpg} The issue of
    ...
    this year. Philippe
    Philippe
    Jamet, the
    But he added that the international agency was concerned about whether China would have enough nuclear inspectors with adequate training to handle the rapid expansion.
    “They don’t have very much staff, when you compare their staff with how many they will need,” Mr. Jamet said.
    The safety Issue Even if the safety issue in China is solved, the country will confront a problem that has bedeviled nuclear power everywhere: what to do with the radioactive waste.
    Where to put the waste
    The challenge for the government and for nuclear companies as they increase construction is to keep an eye on a growing army of contractors and subcontractors who may be tempted to cut corners.
    Yet environmental advocacy groups and outside safety experts are less than sanguine about the idea of hundreds of new nuclear plants being constructed by a secretive Communist government. The Chinese government has a poor public-safety record on issues far simpler than nuclear power, such as food and drug purity.
    Another communist state, the Soviet Union, seized on nuclear power in the 1970s and '80s as an answer to its energy problems, putting up about a dozen poorly designed plants. That culminated in the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, which spread radiation across Europe in the world's worst nuclear accident.

    Cons:
    produce waste that can be dangerously radioactive for thousands of years.
    China is placing many of its nuclear plants near large cities, potentially exposing tens of millions of people to radiation in the event of an accident.
    The idea behind a disposal site is simple: Stick the waste in a sealed container, place it deep underground, and leave it there until the radiation goes away. But in practice, finding appropriate sites has been difficult because of worries about earthquakes or ground water spreading the radiation.
    Chinas Nuclear Fuel Cycle
    · AlthoughAlthough China intends
    ...
    other countries.
    · Domestic

    Domestic
    uranium mining
    ...
    resources internationally.
    · China's

    China's
    two major
    China has stated it intends to become self-sufficient not just in nuclear power plant capacity, but also in the production of fuel for those plants. However, the country still relies on foreign suppliers for all stages of the fuel cycle, from uranium mining through fabrication and reprocessing. As China rapidly increases the number of new reactors, it has also initiated a number of domestic projects, often in cooperation with foreign suppliers, to meet its nuclear fuel needs.
    China's efforts to become totally self sufficient within most aspect's of the fuel cycle
    Nuclear Research
    {simulator.jpg}
    ...
    electricity production. Chinese government scientists
    \
    Research & developmentR_and_D
    Initial Chinese nuclear R&D was military. A water-cooled graphite-moderated production reactor for military plutonium started operating in 1966, located at the Jiuquan Atomic Energy Complex some 100 km northwest of the city of Jiuquan in Gansu province, north-central China. The area is mainly desert and very remote. In the early 1980s it was decided to convert it to dual-use, and plutonium production evidently ceased in 1984. Reprocessing was on site. Another, larger, plutonium production reactor with associated facilities was in a steep valley at Guangyuan in Sichuan province, about 1000 km south. It started up about 1975 and produced the major part of China's military plutonium through to 1991.
    Apart from military facilities, China has about 15 operational research reactors, including the 125 MW light water High-Flux Engineering Test Reactor (HFETR) run by the (Southwest) Leshan Nuclear Power Institute of China at Jiajiang, Sichuan province, since 1979. Early in 2007, this was converted to use low-enriched uranium, with the help of the US National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The HWRR-II 15 MW heavy water reactor, which was operating since 1958, was shut down at the end of 2007. Two - the 60 MW China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) and the 65 MW China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) - are listed as under construction. At least one of the five in Sichuan province was near the epicentre of the May 2008 earthquake.
    The NDRC is strongly supporting R&D on advanced fuel cycles, which will more effectively utilise uranium, and possible also use thorium. The main research organisations are INET at Tsinghua University, China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIEA), also near Beijng, and the Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC) at Chengdu, which is the main body focused on the PHWR technology and fuel cycles. INET has been looking at a wide range of fuel cycle options including thorium, especially for the Qinshan Phase III PHWR units. NPIC has been looking at use of reprocessed uranium in Qinshan's PHWR reactors. CIAE is mainly involved with fast reactor R&D. China's R&D on fast neutron reactors started in 1964.
    Early in 2008 CCNC subsidiary NPIC signed an agreement with Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) to undertake research on advanced fuel cycle technologies such as recycling recovered uranium from used PWR fuel and Generation IV nuclear energy systems. Initially this seems to mean DUPIC, the Direct Use of used PWR fuel In Candu reactors, the main work on which so far has been in South Korea. This blossomed into a strategic agreement among AECL and the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Company (TQNPC), China North Nuclear Fuel Corporation and NPIC in November 2008. The four partners will jointly develop technology for recycling used nuclear fuel from other Chinese reactors (PWRs) with up to 1.6% fissile content for use in the Qinshan Phase III Candu units, though phase one of the agreement was a joint feasibility study to examine the economic feasibility of the thorium proposal.
    In July 2009 a second phase agreement was signed among these four parties to jointly develop and demonstrate the use of thorium fuel and to study the commercial and technical feasibility of its full-scale use in Candu units such as at Qinshan. This was supported in December 2009 by an expert panel appointed by CNNC. The panel also noted the ability of Candu reactors to re-use uranium recycled from light water reactor fuel, and unanimously recommended that China consider building two new Candu units to take advantage of the design's unique capabilities in utilizing alternative fuels. The expert panel comprised representatives from China’s leading nuclear academic, government, industry and R&D organizations. In particular it confirmed that thorium use in the Enhanced Candu 6 reactor design is “technically practical and feasible”, and cited the design’s “enhanced safety and good economics” as reasons it could be deployed in China in the near term.
    In 2008, SNPTC and Tsinghua University set up the State Research Centre for Nuclear Power Technology, focused on large-scale advanced PWR technology and to accelerate China's independent development of third-generation nuclear power.
    A 200 MWt NHR-200 integral PWR design for heat and desalination has been developed by Tsinghua University's Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) near Beijing. It is developed from the 5 MW NHR-5 prototype which started up in 1989.
    Development
    China Institute of Atomic Energy
    The China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIEA) undertakes fundamental research on nuclear science and technology, and is the leading body in relation to fast neutron reactors. Its 15 MWt heavy water research reactor started up in 1958 and was shut down at the end of 2007. An updated version of this was supplied to Algeria and has operated since 1992. CIEA is building the new 60 MWt China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), a light water tank type unit which expected to start up in 2009, and also the sodium-cooled CEFR (see below).
    HTR-10
    A 10 MWt high-temperature gas-cooled demonstration reactor (HTR-10), having fuel particles compacted with graphite moderator into 60mm diameter spherical balls (pebble bed) was commissioned in 2000 by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) at Tsinghua University near Beijing. It reached full power in 2003 and has an outlet temperature of 700-950°C and may be used as a source of process heat for heavy oil recovery or coal gasification. It is similar to the South African PBMR (pebble bed modular reactor) intended for electricity generation. It was subject to a test of its intrinsic safety in September 2004 when as an experiment it was shut down with no cooling. Fuel temperature reached less than 1600°C and there was no failure.
    Initially the HTR-10 has been coupled to a steam turbine power generation unit, but second phase plans are for it to operate at 950°C and drive a gas turbine, as well as enabling R&D in heat application technologies. This phase will involve an international partnership with Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), focused particularly on hydrogen production.
    Shidaowan HTR-PM
    A key R&D project is the demonstration Shidaowan HTR-PM of 210 MWe (two reactor modules, each of 250 MWt) which is being built at Shidaowan in Shandong province, driving a single steam turbine at about 40% thermal efficiency. The size was reduced to 250 MWt from earlier 458 MWt modules in order to retain the same core configuration as the prototype HTR-10 and avoid moving to an annular design like South Africa's PBMR.
    China Huaneng Group, one of China's major generators, is the lead organization in the consortium with China Nuclear Engineering & Construction Group (CNEC) and Tsinghua University's INET, which is the R&D leader. Chinergy Co. is the main contractor for the nuclear island. Projected cost is US$ 430 million, with the aim for later units being US$ 1500/kWe. The licensing process is under way with NNSA, the EPC contract was let in October 2008 and construction was due to start in September 2009 with completion expected in 2013.
    The HTR-PM will pave the way for 18 (3x6) further 210 MWe units at the same site in Weihai city - total 3800 MWe - also with steam cycle. INET is in charge of R&D, and is aiming to increase the size of the 250 MWt module and also utilise thorium in the fuel. Eventually it is intended that a series of HTRs, possibly with Brayton cycle directly driving the gas turbines, will be factory-built and widely installed throughout China.
    In March 2005, an agreement between PBMR of South Africa and Chinergy Co. of Beijing was announced. PBMR Pty Ltd has been taking forward the HTR concept (based on earlier German work) since 1993 and is planning to build a 125 MWe demonstration plant. Chinergy Co. is drawing on the small operating HTR-10 research reactor at Tsinghua University which is the basis of their 100 MWe HTR-PM demonstration module which also derives from the earlier German development. Both PBMR and HTR-PM were planned for operation about 2013. The 2005 agreement was for cooperation on the demonstration projects and subsequent commercialisation, since both parties believe that the inherently safe pebble bed technology built in relatively small units will eventually displace the more complex light water reactors. In March 2009, a new agreement was signed between PBMR, Chinergy and INET.
    Fast neutron reactors
    China's R&D on fast neutron reactors started in 1964. A 65 MWt sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor - the Chinese Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) - is nearing completion at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) near Beijing, being built by Russia's OKBM Afrikantov in collaboration with OKB Gidropress, NIKIET and Kurchatov Institute. It is reported to have a 25 MWe turbine generator and was expected to achieve first criticality in 2009.11
    A 600 MWe Chinese prototype fast reactor (CPFR) based on CEFR was envisaged by 2020 and there was talk of a 1500 MWe one by 2030. However, in October 2009 an agreement was signed by CIAE and CNEIC with Russia's Atomstroyexport to start pre-project and design works for a commercial nuclear power plant with two BN-800 reactors in China, with construction to start in August 2011. This followed a call twelve months earlier by the Russian-Chinese Nuclear Cooperation Commission for construction of an 800 MWe demonstration fast reactor similar to the OKBM Afrikantov design being built at Beloyarsk 4 and due to start up in 2012. In June 2009 Rosatom and CNNC had signed an agreement for construction of two BN-800 demonstration reactors in China, and St Petersburg Atomenergopoekt said it was starting design work on a BN-800 reactor for China, with two proposed at coastal sites. The project is expected to lead to bilateral cooperation of fuel cycles for fast reactors.
    Cobalt-60 production
    China has started production of the medical and industrial radioisotope cobalt-60 using CNNC's Candu 6 power reactors at Qinshan. This will be China's first domestic production of the isotope. Candu reactors are also used to produce cobalt-60 at Wolsong in South Korea, Bruce in Canada and Embalse in Argentina. The core of a Candu 6 has stainless steel adjusters that help to shape neutron flux to optimise power output and ensure efficient burn up of uranium fuel. The normal cobalt in these can be replaced with cobalt-59, which absorbs neutrons to become Co-60. After about 15 months the stainless steel 'targets' with Co-59 are withdrawn for processing. The development is part of China’s 11th Five Year Plan, and should lead to the production of 220 petabecquerels (PBq) of Co-60 per year - enough to satisfy 80% of Chinese needs. The addition will boost global production by around 10%.

    Nuclear Power Control
    ...
    power giants: the China
    The (CNNC)China
    National Nuclear
    ...
    in northeastern China, and theChina
    The
    China Guangdong
    Global Impact
    ...
    Pennsylvania in 1979.1979.China must maintain nuclear safeguards in a national business culture where quality and safety sometimes take a back seat to cost-cutting, profits and outright corruption — as shown by scandals in the food, pharmaceutical and toy industries and by the shoddy construction of schools that collapsed in the Sichuan Province earthquake last year.
    Nuclear Security Summit
    Nuclear Future
    Major nuclear power plants under construction
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    6:52 am
  3. page Nuclear China edited ... China is placing many of its nuclear plants near large cities, potentially exposing tens of mi…
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    China is placing many of its nuclear plants near large cities, potentially exposing tens of millions of people to radiation in the event of an accident.
    Chinas Nuclear Fuel Cycle
    · AlthoughAlthough China intends
    · Domestic uranium mining currently supplies about one-half of China's nuclear fuel needs. Exploration and plans for new mines have increased significantly since 2000, but state-owned enterprises have also entered into agreements to aquire uranium resources internationally.
    ...
    future needs.
    China has stated it intends to become self-sufficient not just in nuclear power plant capacity, but also in the production of fuel for those plants. However, the country still relies on foreign suppliers for all stages of the fuel cycle, from uranium mining through fabrication and reprocessing. As China rapidly increases the number of new reactors, it has also initiated a number of domestic projects, often in cooperation with foreign suppliers, to meet its nuclear fuel needs.
    China's efforts to become totally self sufficient within most aspect's of the fuel cycle
    ...
    Global Impact
    As governments worldwide look at nuclear power as a possible answer to global warming, China has embarked on a nuclear-plant construction binge that eventually could exceed the one the United States undertook during the technology's heyday in the 1960s.The last country to carry out such a rapid nuclear expansion was the United States in the 1970s, in a binge of reactor construction that ended with the Three Mile Island accident in Pennsylvania in 1979.
    Nuclear Security Summit
    Nuclear Future
    Major nuclear power plants under construction
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    6:37 am
  4. page Nuclear China edited ... Energy in China Since Chinaby Ali howard Introduction Since the year ... 25,400 megaw…
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    Energy in China
    Since
    Chinaby Ali howard
    Introduction
    Since
    the year
    ...
    25,400 megawatts. In mainlandMainland China's efforts
    ...
    nuclear faculties theyhave been made clear by the 11 nuclear power reactors in commercial operation, 20 under construction,which are being operating commercially and more about to start construction soon.Additionalthe twenty other reactors that are planned, including someunder construction. Some of the world'sworlds most advanced, to give a sixfold increase in nuclear capacity to at least 60 GWe or possibly more by 2020, and then a further substantial increase to 160 GWe by 2030.Chinatechnologically advanced reactors are being planned as well.
    China
    is rapidlyquickly becoming self-sufficient in both it's reactor design
    ...
    other aspects ofpertaining to the fuel cycle.Nuclearcycle. Nuclear power hasplays an important role, especiallyrole in the coastal areas remotethat are far away from the
    ...
    developing rapidly. Generally, nuclear plants can be built close to centres of demand, whereas suitable wind and hydro sites are remote from demand. Moves to build nuclear power commenced in 1970Therefore China's many cities and expedient economic development make it the industry has now moved to a rapid development phase.ideal
    Advantages
    {Gu_(2).jpg}
    ...
    Pros:
    Nuclear power plants, unlike those that run on fossil fuels, release few greenhouse gases
    Generally, nuclear plants can be built close to centres of demand, whereas suitable wind and hydro sites are remote from demand.
    Disadvantages
    “AtThe issue of safety is one of the greatest issues“At the current
    But he added that the international agency was concerned about whether China would have enough nuclear inspectors with adequate training to handle the rapid expansion.
    “They don’t have very much staff, when you compare their staff with how many they will need,” Mr. Jamet said.
    The safety Issue Even if the safety issue in China is solved, the country will confront a problem that has bedeviled nuclear power everywhere: what to do with the radioactive waste.
    Where to put the waste

    Cons:
    produce waste that can be dangerously radioactive for thousands of years.
    China is placing many of its nuclear plants near large cities, potentially exposing tens of millions of people to radiation in the event of an accident.
    Nuclear Energy PolicyChinas Nuclear Fuel Cycle
    · Although China intends to become self-sufficient in most aspects of the fuel cycle, it relies increasingly on imported uranium as well as conversion, enrichment and fabrication services from other countries.
    · Domestic uranium mining currently supplies about one-half of China's nuclear fuel needs. Exploration and plans for new mines have increased significantly since 2000, but state-owned enterprises have also entered into agreements to aquire uranium resources internationally.
    · China's two major enrichment plants were built under agreements with Russia in the 1990s and, under a 2008 agreement, Russia will help build additional capacity and also supply low-enriched uranium to meet future needs.
    China has stated it intends to become self-sufficient not just in nuclear power plant capacity, but also in the production of fuel for those plants. However, the country still relies on foreign suppliers for all stages of the fuel cycle, from uranium mining through fabrication and reprocessing. As China rapidly increases the number of new reactors, it has also initiated a number of domestic projects, often in cooperation with foreign suppliers, to meet its nuclear fuel needs.
    China's efforts to become totally self sufficient within most aspect's of the fuel cycle

    Nuclear Research
    {simulator.jpg}
    ChinaInitially Chinese nuclear research and development was carried out by the militaryNuclear research in China has been China is not
    ...
    for nuclear waste.waste.These new reactors give a sixfold increase in nuclear capacity to be at least 60 GWe or possibly more by 2020, and then a further substantial increase to 160 GWe by 2030.
    \

    Nuclear Power Control
    China has two rival state-owned nuclear power giants: the China National Nuclear Corporation, mainly in northeastern China, and the China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group, mainly in southeastern China.
    Global Impact
    ...
    in 1979. Nuclear
    Nuclear
    Future
    Major nuclear power plants under construction
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    Ningde
    6,000 MW
    2,000 MW
    Feb. 18, 2008
    0 MW
    2012
    2 × CPR-1000[5]
    Hongyanhe
    6,000 MW
    4,000 MW
    Aug. 18, 2007
    0 MW
    2014
    4 × CPR-1000[6]
    Yangjiang
    6,000 MW
    2,000 MW
    Sept. 26, 2007
    0 MW
    2 × CPR-1000[7][8]
    Ling'ao
    4,000 MW
    2,000 MW
    May 1997
    2,000 MW
    2011/2012
    2 × PWR 938/990,
    2 × CPR-1000[9]
    Qinshan
    4,340 MW
    1,300 MW
    1984
    3,040 MW
    PWR, PHWR
    Fangjiashan
    2,000 MW
    2,000 MW
    April 2008
    0 MW
    2013/2014
    CPR-1000[10]
    Fuqing
    6,000 MW
    2,000 MW
    Oct. 2007
    0 MW
    2013/2014
    CPR-1000[11]
    Sanmen
    6,000 MW
    2,000 MW
    Feb. 26, 2008
    0 MW
    2013/2014
    2 × AP1000[12][13]
    Haiyang
    8,700 MW
    2,000 MW
    July 29, 2008
    0 MW
    2015
    2 × AP1000[14][15]
    Taishan
    6,000 MW
    3,400 MW
    Aug. 26, 2008
    0 MW
    2013
    2 × EPR [16][17]
    Xianning
    10,000 MW
    2,000 MW
    Aug. 12, 2008
    0 MW
    2015
    N/A [18]
    Total
    65,040 MW
    24,700 MW
    5,040 MW

    Under plans already announced, China intends to spend $50 billion to build 32 nuclear plants by 2020. Some analysts say the country will build 300 more by the middle of the century. That's not much less than the generating power of all the nuclear plants in the world today.
    References
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